Snakes were found throughout ancient Egypt, as well as the desert sands, in recent walls, in fields, by the Nile River and in its swamps, on separation floors, in homes and in placental enclosures and pastures. toxic snakes would have posed  a threat to humans and sheep alike. Hence, the Egyptians had somewhat of a love/hate relationship with snakes. whereas they were dangerous, they were additionally viewed, for instance, as a shielder to the King, however additionally a demon of the underworld

A papyrus within the borough depository that served as a manual for a doctor treating bite reveals that the Egyptians had Associate in Nursing intimate data of snakes. though the start of the papyrus is lost, it might have listed the names of some xxxvii. a minimum of 36 species (some sources say thirty four, 37, or 40, of that Associate in Nursing calculable seven ar poisonous) are known in fashionable Egypt, however the traditional classification possibly didn't correspond precisely to the fashionable ones. The papyrus offers a physical description of every snake and its home ground, in conjunction with precise descriptions of the symptoms created by every snake's venom, whether or not or not the bite is mortal, and therefore the name of the god or immortal of that the snake is taken into account to be a manifestation. Following the list of snakes may be a list of remedies to cure bite victims. a number of the remedies ar specific for sure kinds of snakes, whereas alternative were for specific symptoms. These remedies enclosed emetics, compresses, unctions, massages, incision of wounds and fumigations. there have been additionally sorcerous incantations that were spoken over the remedies. The ingredients within the remedies embody liquids and substances of mineral, animal and vegetable origin. the foremost common ingredient is onion, still used ofttimes in Egyptian people drugs nowadays to treat bite.

 one in every of the toxic snakes the Egyptians feared most was the Cerastes cornutus (Cerastes cornutus and sand viper sand viper, additionally referred to as the sand viper). once the Cerastes cornutus attacks, it rasps its coils along before springing forward. The rasping seems like the letter f, and therefore the Cerastes cornutus was used because the hieroglyph to put in writing the sound (fy is that the Egyptian word for "viper" as well

The Pyramid Texts hint repeatedly to the menace of serpents, and that they recur in spiritual texts throughout ancient Egyptian history. initial documented within the initial Intermediate amount, the zombie Apophis (Apep) was thought of the enemy of order, or Ma'at

 As early because the reign of Ramesses II, Apophis became the topic of a ritual recorded in many magic books. throughout spiritual processions and satellite feasts, pictures of Apophis were intentional from papyrus and wax so subjected to varied tortures, representing the triumph of Re and Ma'at over the chaos symbolized by Apophis. However, whereas Apophis was the nemesis of the sun god, the powerful serpent divinity, Mehen, protected the sun

However, not all snakes were thought of unhealthy. Deities related to toxic snakes were generally even thought of helpful. The immortal Renenutet typically appeared within the style of a hooded elapid. Her name springs from Associate in Nursing Egyptian word sense, "to nurse," and she or he was closely related to the fertility of fields, and consequently was thought of the immortal of the entrepot

 Offerings of the primary fruits were created and hymns sung to a sculpture of Renenutet once grain was delivered to the entrepot or once wine was keep within the cellar. She additionally had shut ties with woven  material and personified linen. though her name initial seems within the recent Kingdom within the Pyramid Texts, she isn't pictured in art till the New Kingdom. She was idolized throughout Egypt, however her cult was of explicit significance within the Fayoum

The snake immortal Meretseger personified the pyramid formed peak that rises higher than the natural depression of the Kings. She could are Associate in Nursing object of a domestic cult within the close village of the royal spot builders and their families at Deir el-Medina, as a result of snake figurines were found throughout excavations, several of that were lined with cookery soot, suggesting she provided protection for the room

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